Day 1 :
Polish Stem Cell Bank, Warsaw, Poland FamiCord Group
Time : 9:30-10:15
Mariusz Grudniak has completed his PhD at the age of 37 years from Medical University of Warsaw. He is an expert of Research and Development Department of Polish Stem Cell Bank. He has published 6 papers in reputed journals.
Alzheimer’s Disease is a non treatable condition affecting more and more people every year. There are many clinical trials concerning treatment of this disease, but none has finished with positive results so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between Alzheimer’s Disease and the alterations in cytokine/chemokine level in the serum of 20 patients in the various stage of the disease and 10 healthy volunteers as a control. The stem cell therapy is a very fast developing branch of medicine. Very interesting from the scientific point of view seem to be the co-culture of stem cells and limfocytes obtaining from patients and healthy donors. Cord tissue was the source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Investigated interactions between MSC and limfocytes was measured by obtaining supernatant after 1, 3, and 7 days of co-culture. The conditions allowed or preserve of direct cell-to-cell interaction from paracrinne effect due to physical barriers. The preliminary findings of this investigation showed interesting relations between cells resulting in cytokine levels. One of the proposed explanation of beta-amyloid plaques creation is the dysregulation of immunological system. Th2 lymphocytes cannot compensate increased activity of Th1 lymphocytes and their overproduction of proinflamatory cytokines. This situation has the negative outcomes. It is the inability to control the production of beta-amyloid that in particular is not eliminated and leads to neuronal death. Additional is microglia incorrect activity which is able in physiological conditions to establish protein homeostasis in central nervous system.
Associate Professor, Pathophysiology, Saint Georges University, Grenada, W.
Time : 10:15-11:00
Dr Tey has been persuing his goal of promoting integrative approach in Medical education and Medical practice since his Medical graduation days. He strongly believes that molecular level changes are responsible for disease manifestations. A few years back there were many gaps in our knowledge, which are rapidly filling with evolution and strong emphasis on evidence based medicine. We are now more than ever, ready to explain many diseases starting from the molecular changes. He therefore strongly vouches for taking the clinician back to the basics and start treating at the molecular or cellular level using cell therapy. This realization came after a personal struggle & success in doing so by clubbing his MD postgraduate training in Clinical Biochemistry with Internal Medicine and few other specialties, after battling for a curriculum change. He believes that this approach would decentralize medicine, multidisciplinary cooperation would increase and bring in many noble innovations in future.
Current Scenario: As an insider, a simple approach like cell therapy involving, administering a few millions of highly flexible cells which can transform the functional and structural behaviour of that site, turned out to be a revolutionary idea. Though the idea looks quite simple and feasible, it has met lot of resistance. The age old approach where a synthetic or refined form of a natural chemical can cure or manage the disease is been quiet steadily replaced by Cell therapy, in effect to the realization of the side effects, cost & effectiveness of the prior approach.
Challenges: The idea that cells can be used as therapies and can be procured and processed in an ordinary clinic is very empowering to the medical fraternity and poses an existential challenge to the big pharmaceuticals with huge investments. It’s very disruptive to the manner in which medicine is practiced today. It breaks all the inter-disciplinary barriers and that is the reason, its intimidating to many established disciplines and acceptance is slow but steady.
Future: The Idea of Integrated curriculum approach being adopted in many medical universities (Mayo Clinic, USA) across the globe. In here, doctors in every year of their training are helped in understanding the problem in every organ system using their basic science knowledge. How a disturbance at a cellular/molecular level manifests as a disease with clinical presentation can all be explained in detail. The story of Stem cells changing the course of a disease process fits naturally & nearly perfectly into this background understanding with integrated curriculum approach.
Conclusion: The future looks bright for cell based therapies in medical curriculum & practice as they are in line with today’s medical curriculum. This can bridge the shortage of physicians globally. Looking beyond profits, cell therapy would reinstate people’s belief in their own hidden powers, unknown to mankind until recently.
University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Keynote: Bioprocess Development for High-Density Culture of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Bioreactor
Time : 11:00-11:45
Suman Chandra Nath is working as a postdoctoral fellow in the Rancourt lab, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada after completing his PhD from Kino-oka lab, Osaka University, Japan. His research is focused on applying human stem cells for curing degenerative diseases. Currently, he is developing bioprocesses for reprogramming human skin cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in bioreactor and differentiating them to specific cell types for treating degenerative diseases. Before starting his works in the University of Calgary, his research performed in Kino-oka lab was remarkable in the field of stem cell engineering especially for establishing simple method for passaging hiPSCs aggregates and developing bioprocesses for reducing culture cost in the stirred suspension bioreactor.
Large numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are required for making stable cell bank for clinical applications. Although suspension culture yields large cell numbers, there are still unresolved challenges for the expansion of hiPSCs because large size aggregates show low growth rate during long-term culture. In this study, we have investigated the size- and time-dependent growth properties of hiPSCs aggregates, and set up a boundary condition to maintain high growth rate in suspension culture. We have also established a simple method for hiPSC aggregate break–up into small sizes by using botulinum hemagglutinin (HA). hiPSCs showed size–dependent growth heterogeneity, and aggregates ranging from 100-200 µm showed high growth rate during early-stage of culture (24–72 h). hiPSCs proliferation was also dependent on culture time because the growth rate decreased significantly during late-stage of culture (72–120 h) at which point collagen type I accumulated on the periphery of aggregate. Therefore, to maintain high growth rate, controlling aggregate size, and shortening culture time is important. To obtain high cell density in suspension culture, hiPSC aggregates were exposed to HA, and broken into small sizes by pipetting. A maximum cell density of (4.5 ± 0.2) × 10^6 cells/mL was obtained by aggregate break–up into small ones, which was 3 times higher than that by the conventional culture without aggregate break–up. This method allowed high-density culture of hiPSCs by breaking-up aggregates into small sizes without the need for enzymatic treatment or centrifugation in suspension culture. Therefore, considering the boundary conditions for aggregate size and culture time is important to obtain high growth rate, as well as high cell density in stirred suspension bioreactor culture.